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HHP 815: Research in Health and Human Performance (Washburn & Kriley)

Created for students enrolled in HHP815, this guide provides suggested resources, research tips, writing a literature review, citation management, APA citations, and more.

APA Resources

Quick Guide to APA Citation 7th Edition

Four Elements of Reference List Entries

  1. Author
  2. Date
  3. Title
  4. Source


Author. (Date). Title. Source.


Author Last Name, Author Initial(s). (Year in parentheses). Title. Journal Title ItalicizedVolume Italicized(Issue in parentheses), page range. DOI, permalink, or URL


Vrchota, D. (2011). Communication in the disciplines: Interpersonal communication in dietetics. Communication Education, 60(2), 210–230.

Published Dissertation or Theses 

Author Last Name, Author Initial(s). (Year in parentheses). Title of dissertation or thesis italicized [Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree in brackets]. Database or Archive Name. URL.


Blinne, K. C. (2014). Communication as yoga [Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida]. ​ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.


Author Last Name, Author Initial(s). (Year in parentheses). Title italicized. Publisher Name.


Egolf, D. (2012). Human communication and the brain: Building the foundation for the field of neurocommunication. Lexington Books.

Author Last Name, Author Initial(s), (Year in parentheses). Chapter title in sentence case. In Editor first initial. Editor Last Name (Ed.); Book title in italics. (edition, pp. page numbers of chapter). Publisher. 

Peterson, B. (2011). Media violence has harmful effects on young people. In N. Merino (Ed.), Introducing issues with opposing viewpoints. Media violence (pp. 11-16). Greenhaven Press.

Encyclopedia or Dictionary Entry with an individual author and an editor:

Author Last Name, Author Initial(s). (Year in parentheses). Title of entry. In Editor Initial(s) Last Name (ed.), Title of encyclopedia italicized (edition, page numbers in parentheses). Publisher Name. URL, permalilnk, or DOI


Mitcho, S. R. (2017). Feminist pedagogy. In M. Peters (ed.), Encyclopedia of educational philosophy and theory. Springer Science+Business Media.

Encyclopedia or Dictionary Entry with no author and no editor:

Title of entry. (Year in parentheses). Title of encyclopedia italicized (edition, page numbers in parentheses). Publisher Name. URL, permalilnk, or DOI


Education. (2003). In The MacMillan encyclopedia (2nd ed.). Market House Books Ltd. 


Wikipedia entry title. (Year, Month Day). In Wikipedia. Version URL.

  • To find the date of the version you are viewing, look at the updated date at the bottom of the page, or the version date if you are using a prior version of the page.
  • To find the version URL for the version you viewed, click on "View History" at the top right of the page. Choose the version you want to cite, and use that URL. 


Manchester baby. (2022, June 21). In Wikipedia.


Author Last Name, Initial(s) or Corporate Author. (Date published or updated in parentheses). Title of webpage italicized. Site Name. URL


Silver, F. (2018, July 01). Why is it important for teachers to have good communication skills? Chron.

A personal interview, whether in person, online, or via email, is considered personal communication and should be cited in-text, but does not require a citation in your reference list. 

(First Initial. Last Name, personal communication, Month Day, Year).


(H. Smith, personal communication, May 08, 2020)

YouTube Videos:

Real last name, First initial. [Username]. (Year, Month Day). Video title [Video]. YouTube. URL


Wagner, S. [Simone Wagner]. (2016, June 29). What is media literacy? [Video]. YouTube.

Use the Author-Date Citation System to cite your references in the text of your paper


(Last Name, Year)

Example:  (Vrchota, 2011)


Narrative Citations: If you refer to the author in your written text, use only the year in parentheses after the author's name.

Example: Vrchota (2011) interviewed seven registered dietitians. 

Specific Quotes: Direct quoting is rare in APA, and should be used sparingly.

When you do directly quote a resource, include information about the specific part of your citation, such as page, paragraph, or chapter.

Example: "Relationships are built through the negotiated progression of increased and reciprocated disclosures by the participants" (Vrchota, 2011, p. 221).


In-Text Summary

(Last Name, Year).

Many programs do not have curriculum dedicated to classroom management and, if it does, it is restricted within one course at best (Hammerness 2011).

In-Text Narrative Summary

This is evidenced by Dunn and Rakes (2011) who appraised the collective impact of teacher efficacy and concerns on learner-centered practices (LCP) which they link to classroom management.

In-Text Summary with more than one source

Instead, a-contextual understanding persists and is particularly problematic given the introduction and importance of CRCM, which is used to address the diverse needs of students (Whitaker and Valtierra 2018; Yang and Montgomery 2013).

In-Text Summary combining narrative and ideas with more than one source

Chambers and Hardy (2005) found that classroom management beliefs tend to stay consistent over time based on a pretest-posttest questionnaire of secondary teacher-education students, whereas others have identified preservice teachers shifting towards a more relational understanding (Jones and Vesilind 1995; Kwok 2020).

In-Text Direct Quote

(Last Name, Year, p. number)

"Relationships are built through the negotiated progression of increased and reciprocated disclosures by the participants" (Vrchota, 2011, p. 221).

In-Text Narrative Direct Quote

Kaufman and Moss (2010) found that teachers defined classroom management as “maintaining discipline and controlling behavior” (p. 127).

In-Text with 3 or more authors

Use the first author plus "et al." 

Teacher candidates (TCs), also called preservice teachers, often are the least prepared in classroom management compared with any other pedagogical skill (Albrecht et al. 2009).

Linking to Library Resources

DOIs and Permalinks

You cannot simply copy and paste the URL from your browser into your citation (because library resources require you to sign in with your TigerNetID, the URL is unique for each time you search so you will get an error message if you try to revisit your resource again using the browser's URL).

Look for the following instead:

  • DOI on your article PDF
  • DOI within the article-detail page of the database
  • permalink from the database in which you found the article

A DOI is a digital object identifier, or a unique and permanent address that will always get you back to that specific article. A permalink is a permanent link to a resource that will consistently provide a path back to the source. 

Refer to this guide for tips for finding permalinks from specific library resources: