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Citation and Documentation Styles

Find resources on Citation and Documentation Styles. APA, MLA, and Chicago Manual of Style have resources you can find at Forsyth Library and online, as well as a quick guide to the types of sources most often cited.

MLA Resources

Quick Guide to MLA Citation 8th Edition

MLA uses a "Container" system, and has a template showing what elements are required, the order to put them in, and what punctuation to use. According to the MLA Works Cited Quick Guide: 

"When the source being documented forms part of a larger whole, the larger whole can be thought of as a container that holds the source. For example, a short story may be contained in an anthology. The short story is the source, and the anthology is the container."

MLA template

MLA Interactive Practice Template


Some sources only need one container:

Example:

Harjo, Joy. "This Morning I Pray for My Enemies." Massachusetts Review, vol. 50, no. 1–2, Spring/Summer 2009, p. 232. 


But others, such a as the sources you find through library databases, need two containers. One for the source, and one for the database you found it in. 

Example:

Leen, Mary. "An Art of Saying: Joy Harjo's Poetry and the Survival of Storytelling." The American Indian Quarterly 19.1 (1995): 1-16. Gale Academic OneFile, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A17339821/AONE?u=klnb_fhsuniv&sid=AONE&xid=5a8b0ac6


Tips:

  • Capitalize each word in titles, but do not capitalize articles, prepositions or conjuctions unless the first word. Example: "That the People Might Live" : Loss and Renewal in Native American Elegy
  • Use italics for titles of larger works (such as books or magazines) and quotation marks for titles of shorter works (such as articles and poems)
  • No author: start with title

 

Elements for Journal Articles:

  1. Name of Author(s) if available
  2. "Full Title of Article in quotations."
  3. Title of Journal italicized,
  4. Volume Number of Journal,
  5. Issue Number of Journal,
  6. Date of Publication, 
  7. Page Numbers of Article if available.

If from an online database or webpage, also include a second container with:

  1. Database or name of website italicized,
  2. DOI, URL, or permalink

Online Journal Article (needs two containers):

Author(s) Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article in quotation marks." Title of Journal italicized, volume, issue, Publication date, page numbers. Database italicized, DOI, permalink, or URL. 

Example:

Carnes, Jeremy M. "Reinventing the enemy's intentions: native identity and the city in the poetry of Joy Harjo." Studies in the Humanities, vol. 42, no. 1-2, 2015, pp. 36+. Gale Academic OneFile, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A441400770/AONE?u=klnb_fhsuniv&sid=AONE&xid=86856e38.


Printed Journal Article (needs one container):

Author(s) Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article in quotation marks." Title of Journal italicized, volume, issue, Publication date, page numbers. Database italicized, DOI, permalink, or URL. 

Treat, James. "Muscogee Nation Indian Territory: From Oral History to Found Poetry." Tribal College Journal of American Indian Higher Education vol.28, no. 3, 2017, pp.7.

Elements for Dissertations and Master's Theses:

  1. Name of Author. 
  2. Title of dissertation/thesis italicized.
  3. Date of Publication,
  4. Institution granting the degree (optional),
  5. Description of the work (optional).

If found online through a library database or website, add a second container:

  1. Database italicized,
  2. DOI, permalink, or URL.

Online Dissertation or Thesis:

Author(s) Last Name, First Initial. Title of Dissertation/Thesis italicized. Publication date, Institution granting the degree, description of the work. Database in italics, DOI, permalink, or URL. 

Example:

Killelea, Patricia. Between these Songs: Contemporary Experimental Native American Poetry & Poetics. 2015, University of California, Davis, Doctoral Dissertation. ProQuest, https://search.proquest.com/docview/1720548329?accountid=27424.


Print Dissertation or Thesis:

Author(s) Last Name, First Initial. Title of Dissertation/Thesis italicized. Publication date, Institution granting the degree, description of the work. 

Cagle, Amanda N. B. Pushing from their Hearts a New Song: The (Re)Construction of the Feminine in American Indian Women's Poetry. 2006, University of Connecticut, Doctoral Dissertation. 

Elements in a book citation:

  1. Name of author, editor, person or group primarily responsible for creating the work.
  2. Title of book iitalicized,
  3. Edition used, (if other than the first) or Version (such as King James Version)
  4. Volume number, 
  5. Name of Publisher,
  6. Year of Publication,
  7. Publication Location.

If it is an ebook, include a second container:

  1. Database or website used to access italicized,
  2. DOI, permalink, or URL.

Online or E-book (needs two containers):

Author(s) Last Name, First Name. Title of Book italicized. Publisher, Year. Database italicized, DOI, permalink, or URL. 

Example:

Krupat, Arnold. "That the People Might Live" : Loss and Renewal in Native American Elegy, Cornell University Press, 2012. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/fhsu/detail.action?docID=3138377.


Printed Book:

Author(s) Last Name, First Name. Title of Book italicized. Publisher, Year.

Example:

Warm, Water L, and Lucille Day. Red Indian Road West: Native American Poetry from California. Scarlet Tanager Books, 2016.

 

Elements in a reference citation:

  1. Name of author, editor, person or group primarily responsible for creating the work.
  2. "Title of entry in quotation marks."
  3. Title of encyclopedia italicized,
  4. edited by, Editor name,
  5. Edition used, (if other than the first) or Version (such as King James Version)
  6. Volume number, 
  7. Name of Publisher,
  8. Year of Publication,
  9. Publication Location.

If it is an ebook, include a second container:

  1. Database or website used to access italicized,
  2. DOI, permalink, or URL.

Online or E-book Encyclopedia or Dictionary Entry with an individual author and an editor (needs two containers):

Author(s) Last Name, First Name. "Title of entry in quotation marks." Title of Encyclopedia italicized, edited by Editor First Name, Last Name, edition used, volume number, Publisher, Year. Database italicized, DOI, permalink, or URL. 

Example:

Potts, Donna L. "Native American Poetry." Encyclopedia of American Poetry: The Twentieth Century, edited by Eric L. Haralson, Routledge, 2001. Credo Reference, https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/routampoetry/native_american_poetry/0


Online or E-book Encyclopedia or Dictionary Entry with no author and no editor (needs two containers):

 "Title of entry in quotation marks." Title of Encyclopedia italicized, edition used, volume number, Publisher, Year. Database italicized, DOI, permalink, or URL. 

Example:

"American Indians." The Macmillan Encyclopedia, Market House Books Ltd, 2nd edition, 2003. Credo Reference, https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/move/american_indians/0


Printed Encyclopedia or Dictionary Entry with an individual author and an editor 

Author(s) Last Name, First Name. "Title of entry in quotation marks." Title of Encyclopedia italicized, edited by Editor First Name, Last Name, edition used, volume number, Publisher, Year. 

Example:

Potts, Donna L. "Native American Poetry." Encyclopedia of American Poetry: The Twentieth Century, edited by Eric L. Haralson, Routledge, 2001. 


Printed Encyclopedia or Dictionary Entry with no author and no editor 

 "Title of entry in quotation marks." Title of Encyclopedia italicized, edition used, volume number, Publisher, Year. 

Example:

"American Indians." The Macmillan Encyclopedia, Market House Books Ltd, 2nd edition, 2003. 

Elements for Web Pages:

  1. Author's name, or Corporate Author. 
  2. "Title of work in quotations."  
  3. Title of the Web site italicized, (if different from the specific work)
  4. Date of publication/last updated,
  5. URL, omitting http://

Blog post example :

Harjo, Joy. "Who is Telling Your Story?" Joy Harjo, 30 July 2019, www.joyharjo.com/who-is-telling-your-story

Corporate Author example:

Peabody Museum of Archeology & Ethnology. "From Nation to Nation: Examining Lewis and Clark's Indian Collection."  Peabody Museum of Archeology & Ethnology.‚Äč www.peabody.harvard.edu/node/2314

Use the Author-Page System to cite your references in the text of your paper

Template:

(Last Name page number)

Example:  (Stafford 90)


Narrative Citations: If you refer to the author in your written text, use only the page number in parentheses after the quote, summary, or paraphrase.

Example: Stafford compares two Native American poets, Luci Tapahonso and Simon Ortiz. (90)


Specific Quotes and Paraphrases: Include information about the specific part of your citation, such as page, paragraph, or chapter.

Example: "Time compresses in space, and the past seeps into the present in order to inject various events into the present " (Stafford 93)


Tips:

  • Use only the surname (or last name) of the author(s)
  • Two authors: Use both last names with and. Example: (Warm and Day 7)
  • Three or more authors: Use the first author plus "et al." Example: (Chad et al. 13)
  • No author: use a shortened version of the title. Example: ("Between These Songs" 3)