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Citation and Documentation Styles

Find resources on Citation and Documentation Styles. APA, MLA, and Chicago Manual of Style have resources you can find at Forsyth Library and online, as well as a quick guide to the types of sources most often cited.

CMoS Resources

Quick Guide to CMoS 17th Edition

Three Elements of Notes-Bibliography entries:

  1. Author(s).
  2. Title.
  3. Publication Information, including year.

Template:

Author(s). Title. Publication Information.


Four Elements of Author-Date Bibliography entries:

  1. Author(s).
  2. Publication Year.
  3. Title.
  4. Publication Information.

Template:

Author. Year. Title. Publication Information.


Tips:

 

Notes- Bibliography Entry:

Last Name, First Name.  "Article title in quotation marks". Journal Title italicized volume number, no. issue number (Publication Date in parentheses): page numbers. DOI, permalink, or URL. 

Example:

Benz, Terressa A. “Toxic Cities: Neoliberalism and Environmental Racism in Flint and Detroit Michigan.” Critical Sociology 45, no. 1 (January 2019): 49–62. doi:10.1177/0896920517708339.

 

Footnote or Endnote:

First Name Last Name,  "Article title in quotation marks". Journal Title italicized volume number, no. issue number (Publication Date in parentheses): page number. DOI, permalink, or URL. 

Example:

Terressa A. Benz,  “Toxic Cities: Neoliberalism and Environmental Racism in Flint and Detroit Michigan.” Critical Sociology 45, no. 1 (January 2019): 50. doi:10.1177/0896920517708339.


Author-Date System Bibliography Entry:

This format depends on the details available. Consult resources for detailed information.

Last Name, First Name. Year. "Article title in quotation marks." Journal Title italicized volume number, no. issue number (month or season in parentheses): article page range.

Example:

Benz, Terressa A. 2019. “Toxic Cities: Neoliberalism and Environmental Racism in Flint and Detroit Michigan.” Critical Sociology 45, no. 1 (January): 49–62. doi:10.1177/0896920517708339.

 

Bibliography Entry:

Last name, First name. "Title of of dissertation or thesis in quotation marks." Type of document, University Granting Degree, Year of publication. DOI, permanlink, or URL.

Example:

Kirchner, David Elek. "Challenging Private Power: Neighborhood Opposition to Redlining in Three Midwestern Cities." Doctoral Dissertation, Washington University, 2001. https://search.proquest.com/docview/304734464

 

Footnote or Endnote:

First name Last name, "Title of of dissertation or thesis in quotation marks."  (Type of document, University Granting Degree, Year of publication in parentheses), page number. DOI, permanlink, or URL.

Example:

Kirchner, David Elek. "Challenging Private Power: Neighborhood Opposition to Redlining in Three Midwestern Cities." (Doctoral Dissertation, Washington University, 2001.) 113, https://search.proquest.com/docview/304734464


Author-Date Bibliography Entry:

Last name, First name. Year. "Title of of dissertation or thesis in quotation marks." Type of document, University Granting Degree. DOI, permanlink, or URL.

Example:

Kirchner, David Elek. 2001. "Challenging Private Power: Neighborhood Opposition to Redlining in Three Midwestern Cities." Doctoral Dissertation, Washington University. https://search.proquest.com/docview/304734464

Bibliography Entry:

Last name, First name. Title of Book italicized. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. URL, permalink, DOI, or database.

Example:

Aalbers, Manuel B. Place, Exclusion and Mortgage Markets. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2011. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/fhsu/detail.action?docID=697783


Footnote or Endnote:

First name Last name, Title of Book iitalicized. (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. in parentheses), page number. URL, permalink, DOI, or database.

Example:

Manuel B. Aalbers, Place, Exclusion and Mortgage Markets. (Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2011.) 78. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/fhsu/detail.action?docID=697783


 Author-Date System Bibliography Entry:

Last name, First Name. Year. Title italicized. City of publication: Publisher name. URL, permalink, DOI, or database.

Example:

Aalbers, Manuel B. 2011. Place, Exclusion and Mortgage Markets. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/fhsu/detail.action?docID=697783

Encyclopedia with an individual author and editor Bibliography Entry:

Last name, First name. "Title of entry in quotation marks." In Title of Encyclopedia italicized. Edited by First Name Last Name. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. URL, permalink, DOI, or database.

Example:

Martin, Lori Latrice. "Redlining." In Encyclopedia of Diversity and Social Justice, edited by Sherwood Thompson. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2014. https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/rowmandasj/redlining/0


Encyclopedia with an individual author and editor Footnote or Endnote:

First name Last name, "Title of entry in quotation marks, in Title of Encyclopedia italicized, ed. Editor First name Last Name, Edition, (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. in parentheses), page number. URL, permalink, DOI, or database.

Example:

Lori Latrice Martin, "Redlining," in Encyclopedia of Diversity and Social Justice, ed. Sherwood Thompson. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2014. https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/rowmandasj/redlining/0


Encyclopedia with an individual author and editor Author-Date System Bibliography Entry:

Last name, First Name. Year. "Title of Entry in quotation marks." In Encyclopedia Title italicized. Edited by First Name Last Name. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. URL, permalink, DOI, or database.

Example:

Martin, Lori Latrice. "Redlining." In Encyclopedia of Diversity and Social Justice, edited by Sherwood Thompson. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2014. https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/rowmandasj/redlining/0


Encyclopedia with no individual author and no editor Bibliography Entry:

Title of Encyclopedia italicized, Edition. s.v. "Title of Entry in quotation marks," Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication, or last modified date, or access date. URL, permalink, DOI, or database.

Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, s.v. "segregation, racial."  Britannica Digital Learning, 2017.  https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/ebconcise/segregation_racial/0 


Encyclopedia with no individual author and no editor Footnote or Endnote:

Title of Encyclopedia italicized, Edition. s.v. "Title of Entry in quotation marks," (Year of publication in parentheses). or last modified date, or access date. URL, permalink, DOI, or database.

Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, s.v. "segregation, racial." (2017).  https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/ebconcise/segregation_racial/0 


Encyclopedia with no individual author and no editor Author-Date System Bibliography Entry:

Title of Encyclopedia italicized, Edition. s.v. "Title of Entry in quotation marks," Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication, or last modified date, or access date. URL, permalink, DOI, or database.

Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, s.v. "segregation, racial."  Britannica Digital Learning, 2017.  https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/ebconcise/segregation_racial/0 


What does s.v. mean?

s.v. stands for sub verbo, Latin for "under the word" and is used to identify the article's title when there is no author 

Bibliography Entry:

Author Last Name, First Name. "Title of specific web page in quotation marks." Title of site as a whole. Owner or sponsor of site. Publication, modification or access date. URL.

Example:

 "Definition of Redlining in Real Estate." The Balance. Dotdash. Last modified November 21, 2019. https://www.thebalance.com/definition-of-redlining-1798618

 

Footnote or Endnote:

Author First Name, Last Name."Title of specific web page in quotation marks." Title of site as a whole. Owner or sponsor of site. Publication, modification or access date. URL.

 "Definition of Redlining in Real Estate. "The Balance. Dotdash. Last modified November 21, 2019. https://www.thebalance.com/definition-of-redlining-1798618


Author-Date Bibliography Entry:

Author First Name, Last Name. Year. "Title of specific web page in quotation marks." Title of site as a whole. Owner or sponsor of site. Publication, modification or access date. URL.

 "Definition of Redlining in Real Estate." 2019. The Balance. Dotdash. Last modified November 21, 2019. https://www.thebalance.com/definition-of-redlining-1798618

Notes-Bibliography System:

Include a footnote or endnote each time you use a source. These notes have a superscript number for each note, with references at the end of the page (footnote) or document/chapter (endnote). 

How to insert footnotes and endnotes in Word 

If the paper also includes a bibliography, the information in the note can be shortened. If there is not a bibliography, all information should be included in the note. 

Example: "Perhaps the most blatant example of a government instituted system of worthiness occurred within six months of the switch to the Flint River when General Motors (GM) ceased use of the toxic water "1

1. Terressa A. Benz,  “Toxic Cities: Neoliberalism and Environmental Racism in Flint and Detroit Michigan.” Critical Sociology 45, no. 1 (January 2019): 50. doi:10.1177/0896920517708339.


Author-Date System:

Template:

(Last Name Year)

Example:  (Benz 2019)

 

Narrative Citations: If you refer to the author in your written text, use only the year in parentheses after the author's name.

Example: Benz (2019) examines environmental racism in Michigan.

 

Specific Quotes and Paraphrases: Include information about the specific part of your citation, such as page, paragraph, or chapter.

Example: "Perhaps the most blatant example of a government instituted system of worthiness occurred within six months of the switch to the Flint River when General Motors (GM) ceased use of the toxic water " (Benz 2019, 55)