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HIST 675: Seminar in History - U.S. and the Holocaust (Dr. Nienkamp): America At War: What did the U.S. Know?

Designed for students in HIST 675 U.S. and the Holocaust, this guide provides readers with insight into America’s response to the Third Reich’s treatment of its Jewish population, the Holocaust itself, and its aftermath by providing access to primary sour

Open Access Resources

State Department, Office of the Historian: Foreign Relations of the United States - Franklin D. Roosevelt Administration (1933–1945)

*Each FRUS volume contains keyword searches and filter options. 

**A digital facsimile of FRUS is from 1861-1960 is also available here.  A project of the University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries in collaboration with the University of Illinois at Chicago Libraries, this is a nearly complete run with missing volumes added as they are acquired and processed.

Select Papers


FRUS: Diplomatic Papers - Europe, Myron Taylor's Letter to Vatican Secretary of State Maglione regarding the Liquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto and Deportations 

FRUS: Diplomatic Papers - General, Minister in Switzerland (Harrison) to the Secretary of State regarding anti-Jewish measures in France and Germany and Swiss position on immigrants


FRUS: Diplomatic Papers - The Near East and Africa, Secretary of State Hull to President Roosevelt regarding Arab-Jewish situation in Mandatory Palestine

FRUS: Diplomatic Papers - General, Bermuda Conference to consider the Refugee Problem

FRUS: Diplomatic Papers - General, Conferences At Washington and Quebec, Contents

FRUS: Diplomatic Papers - General, Allied Declarations and Warnings Regarding Nazi Atrocities; Establishment of the United Nations Commission for the Investigation of War Crimes

FRUS: Diplomatic Papers - Europe, France, Negotiation by the United States with French Authorities to Relieve Jewish Community in Tunisia of Nazi Fines and Levies

FRUS: Diplomatic Papers - The British Commonwealth, Eastern Europe, & The Far East, The Trial and Sentencing of German War Criminals and Russian Accomplices in the Soviet Union


FRUS: Diplomatic Papers - General, Allied Declarations and Warnings Regarding Nazi Atrocities 

FRUS: Diplomatic Papers - General, Discussions Regarding Procedures and Scope of the United Nations Commissions fro the Investigation of War Crimes

FRUS: Diplomatic Papers - Europe, Soviet Union, The Trial and Sentencing of German War Criminals by the Soviet Union, and Divergent Attitudes Among the Allies Regarding the Propriety of this Procedure 


FRUS: Diplomatic Papers - European Advisory Committee, Austria, Germany, Tripartite Warning to Germany Regarding Responsibility for the Safety and Welfare of Allied POWs, Internees, and Deported Citizens


Electronic Journals & Newspapers

Resources w/ Limited Full-Text Access

USHMM History Unfolded: US Newspapers and the Holocaust

The USHMM has created an ongoing crowd-sourced archive containing American newspaper coverage of and reaction to key events and policies related to the Hitlerite Regime's persecution of European Jews as well as important antecedents.

Each event page contains a synopsis, creator-supplied keywords, suggested bibliography.  Indexed and full-text items are located under each event page's "VIEW ALL RESEARCH ON THIS EVENT" tab.  


The Deportation of French Jews

Official Recognition of the "Final Solution"

The Allies Response to the "Final Solution"


Public Responses to the "Final Solution"

The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

The Evacuation of Danish Jews


Roosevelt Establishes the War Refugee Board

The Deportation of Hungarian Jews Begins

Roosevelt Establishes Fort Ontario Refugee Camp in Oswego, New York

The War Refugee Board Releases Reports Detailing the Industrial Extermination Program at Auschwitz-Birkenau.

Lemkin and the Concept of Genocide


The Liberation of Concentration Camps in the Greater German Reich


Suggested Readings