Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.


This guide provides information on finding and using physics related resources.

Basic parts of a citation

Citation styles vary but they all tend to include the same information. The key is to learn how to identify the different parts of the citation and then plug them into the correct place for the style.

  • Identify the parts of your article
    • Title
    • Author
    • Source
    • Date
    • URL/DOI
    • Pages
  • Find the right "formula" for your citation style
  • Plug the parts into the formula
  • There are exceptions and variations
    • Follow any directions from your instructor
    • If a part isn't there - skip it
    • Follow the general format as best you can
    • Ask for Help!