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HHP 280: Care and Prevention of Exercise & Sport Injuries (Fitzhugh and Mettling)

APA Resources

Quick Guide to APA Citation 7th Edition

Four Elements of Reference List Entires

  1. Author
  2. Date
  3. Title
  4. Source


Author. (Date). Title. Source.


  • Reference entries have a hanging indent.
  • For resources that are part of a greater whole (such as journal articles or book chapters), DO NOT italicize or use quotation marks for the article or chapter title. Capitalize title using sentence case. The journal, newspaper, magazine, or book title is still italicized. 
  • For resources that are stand alone ( such as books or webpages), italicize the title, and capitalize it using sentence case. 
  • More than one Author: Name all the authors in the bibliographic reference- up to 20. For 21 or more authors list the first 19, then use an "..." [ellipsis] and the final name. 
  • For 20 authors or less, list all the names with a comma between authors, and a & before the last author. 
  • Use Bias-Free Language to talk about all people with inclusivity and respect. 

Example: Lane, H. C., Hays, M. J., Core, M. G., & Auerbach, D. (2013). Learning intercultural communication skills with virtual humans: Feedback and fidelity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(4), 1026–1035.

  • Editor instead of author: Use (Ed.) after their name.

Example: Willis, L. (Ed.). (2013). Electronic devices in schools. Greenhaven Press.

  • 20 or more authors: List the first 19 authors, then use ... before the final author's name. You DO NOT need to use an ampersand (&) for this.
  • No author: Start with the Title, then the date.

Example: Educational psychology. (2020). In Encyclopædia Britannica.


Author Last Name, Author Initial(s). (Year in parentheses). Title. Journal Title ItalicizedVolume Italicized(Issue in parentheses), page range. DOI, permalink, or URL


Vrchota, D. (2011). Communication in the disciplines: Interpersonal communication in dietetics. Communication Education, 60(2), 210–230.

Published Dissertation or Theses 

Author Last Name, Author Initial(s). (Year in parentheses). Title of dissertation or thesis italicized [Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree in brackets]. Database or Archive Name. URL.


Blinne, K. C. (2014). Communication as yoga [Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida]. ​ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.


Author Last Name, Author Initial(s). (Year in parentheses). Title italicized. Publisher Name.


Egolf, D. (2012). Human communication and the brain: Building the foundation for the field of neurocommunication. Lexington Books.

Encyclopedia or Dictionary Entry with an individual author and an editor:

Author Last Name, Author Initial(s). (Year in parentheses). Title of entry. In Editor Initial(s) Last Name (ed.), Title of encyclopedia italicized (edition, page numbers in parentheses). Publisher Name. URL, permalilnk, or DOI


Mitcho, S. R. (2017). Feminist pedagogy. In M. Peters (ed.), Encyclopedia of educational philosophy and theory. Springer Science+Business Media.

Encyclopedia or Dictionary Entry with no author and no editor:

Title of entry. (Year in parentheses). Title of encyclopedia italicized (edition, page numbers in parentheses). Publisher Name. URL, permalilnk, or DOI

Education. (2003). In The MacMillan encyclopedia (2nd ed.). Market House Books Ltd. 


Author Last Name, Initial(s) or Corporate Author. (Date published or updated in parentheses). Title of webpage italicized. Site Name. URL


Silver, F. (2018, July 01). Why is it important for teachers to have good communication skills? Chron.

Use the Author-Date Citation System to cite your references in the text of your paper


(Last Name, Year)

Example:  (Vrchota, 2011)

Narrative Citations: If you refer to the author in your written text, use only the year in parentheses after the author's name.

Example: Vrchota (2011) interviewed seven registered dietitians. 

Specific Quotes: Direct quoting is rare in APA, and should be used sparingly.

When you do directly quote a resource, include information about the specific part of your citation, such as page, paragraph, or chapter.

Example: "Relationships are built through the negotiated progression of increased and reciprocated disclosures by the participants" (Vrchota, 2011, p. 221).


  • Use only the surname (or last name) of the author(s)
  • Use only the year
  • No date? Use n.d.  Example: (Auerbach, n.d.)
  • Three or more authors? Use the first author plus "et al." Example: (Chad, et al. 2013)
  • Use Block format for quotations over 40 words

Linking to Library Resources

DOIs and Permalinks

You cannot simply copy and paste the URL from your browser into your citation (because library resources require you to sign in with your TigerNetID, the URL is unique for each time you search so you will get an error message if you try to revisit your resource again using the browser's URL).

Look for the following instead:

  • a DOI on your article PDF
  • a DOI within the article-detail page of the database
  • a permalink from the database in which you found the article

A DOI is a digital object identifier, or a unique and permanent address that will always get you back to that specific article. A permalink is a permanent link to a resource that will consistently provide a path back to the source. 

Refer to this guide for tips for finding permalinks from specific library resources: