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SOC 388: Sociology of the Family in America (Elizabeth Dingler)

This guide offers resources and tools to assist you with your Sociology of the Family in America course.


American Sociological Association (ASA) Style

In this course, the preferred writing format is the American Sociological Association (ASA) style. Below are some quick tips to how to properly format your paper to this style of academic writing.

Annotated Bibliographies

This video discusses annotated bibliographies, including:

  • What is an annotated bibliography?
  • How an annotated bibliography can help the research process
  • Types of annotated bibliographies (descriptive, informative, evaluative, combination)
  • Parts of an annotation (summary, assess, reflect)

How to Embed This Tutorial in Blackboard:

  1. How to Embed This Tutorial in Blackboard:

  2. Select and copy (Ctrl+C) all of the following Embed Code text:
    <iframe title="Citation Management and Citation Tracing" width="640" height="360" allowTransparency="true" mozallowfullscreen webkitallowfullscreen allowfullscreen style="background-color:transparent;" frameBorder="0" src=""></iframe>
  3. In Blackboard, create and name an Item (or any other Blackboard tool that includes the standard Text Editor) 
  4. Click the HTML button at the bottom right of the Tool Buttons to open the HTML editor 
  5. Paste (Ctrl+V) the embed code within the HTML window and click Update and Submit. 

Link to VidGrid Video:

Quick Guide to ASA Citations 6th Edition

Elements of Reference List Entries

  1. Author(s) Name(s)
  2. Year of Publication
  3. Article Title
  4. Journal Title
  5. Volume Number (Issue Number)
  6. Page Numbers
  7. DOI (if available)


Author. Date. “Article Title.” Journal Title Volume Number(Issue Number), Page Numbers. DOI

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Publication Year. “Title in Quotes in Title Case.” Journal Title Italicized Volume Number(Issue Number in parentheses), Page Range. DOI, permalink, or URL

Vrchota, Denise. 2011. “Communication in the Disciplines: Interpersonal Communication in Dietetics.” Communication Education, 60(2), 210–230.

Published Dissertation or Theses 

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Publication Year. “Title of Dissertation in Quotes and in Title Case.” PhD dissertation, Department of Study, University of. Retrieved from Database, record number

King, Andrew J. 1976. “Law and Land Use in Chicago: A Pre-history of Modern Zoning.” PhD dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison.


Author Last Name, Author First Name. Publication Year. Book Title in Title Caps and Italicized. Publishing City: Publisher.


Atwood, Margaret. 2006. The Handmaid’s Tale. New York, NY: Random House.

Author Last Name, Author First Name or Corporate Author. Year Published. “Title”. Title of Webpage Italicized. Retrieved Date You Visited Webpage. (website URL)

Silver, Freddie. (2018). “Why is it important for teachers to have good communication skills?” Retrieved August 22, 2022 (

Personal communication such as emails, telephone conversations, and interviews should be cited in a footnote or endnote and an in-text citation.

In-text: During the interview, Sherman discussed her experiences managing festivals.

Footnote: 1 Suzy Sherman, interview with author, February 12, 2013.

Author Last Name, Author First Name or Corporate Author. Year Published. “Title”. City of Publication: Publisher. Medium. 

American Sociological Association. 2004. Max Weber Visits America, 1904. Washington, DC: American Sociological Association. DVD.

Papademas, Dianne, ed. 2002. Visual Sociology: Teaching with Film/Video, Photography, and Visual Media. 5th ed.  Washington, DC: American Sociological Association. VHS.

Author Last Name, Author First Name or Corporate Author. Year Published. “Title”. Publisher if noted. Date of upload if noted. Access Date. Medium. Website URLCity of Publication: Publisher. Medium. 

University of Luxembourg. 2019. "Inequality and Women in Politics." Produced by European Investment Bank, December 1. Video.

Use the Author-Date Citation System to cite your references in the text of your paper


(Last Name Year)

Example:  (Vrchota 2011)

Narrative Citations: If you refer to the author in your written text, use only the year in parentheses after the author's name.

Example: Vrchota (2011) interviewed seven registered dietitians. 

Specific Quotes: Direct quoting is rare in ASA, and should be used sparingly.
When you do directly quote a resource, include information about the specific part of your citation, such as page, paragraph, or chapter.

Example: "Relationships are built through the negotiated progression of increased and reciprocated disclosures by the participants" (Vrchota 2011:221).


In-Text Summary:
(Authors Last Name Year).

Many programs do not have curriculum dedicated to classroom management and, if it does, it is restricted within one course at best (Hammerness 2011).

In-Text Narrative Summary:

This is evidenced by Dunn and Rakes (2011) who appraised the collective impact of teacher efficacy and concerns on learner-centered practices (LCP) which they link to classroom management.

In-Text Summary with more than one source:

Instead, a-contextual understanding persists and is particularly problematic given the introduction and importance of CRCM, which is used to address the diverse needs of students (Whitaker and Valtierra 2018; Yang and Montgomery 2013).

In-Text Summary combining narrative and ideas with more than one source:

Chambers and Hardy (2005) found that classroom management beliefs tend to stay consistent over time based on a pretest-posttest questionnaire of secondary teacher-education students, whereas others have identified preservice teachers shifting towards a more relational understanding (Jones and Vesilind 1995; Kwok 2020).

In-Text Direct Quote:
(Last Name Year: p. number)

"Relationships are built through the negotiated progression of increased and reciprocated disclosures by the participants" (Vrchota 2011: 221).

In-Text Narrative Direct Quote:

Kaufman and Moss (2010:127) found that teachers defined classroom management as “maintaining discipline and controlling behavior”.

In-Text with more than one author but less than 4 authors:
List all authors for first citation.
For any additional citation from the source use the first author plus "et al." 

By studying the dynamics of poverty, policymakers will better be able to decide how to distribute resources to those in need (Lu, Shelley, and Liu 2021).

In-Text with 4 or more authors 
Use the first author plus "et al." 

Teacher candidates (TCs), also called preservice teachers, often are the least prepared in classroom management compared with any other pedagogical skill (Albrecht et al. 2009).