Four Elements of Reference List Entires
Author. (Date). Title. Source.
Example: Lane, H. C., Hays, M. J., Core, M. G., & Auerbach, D. (2013). Learning intercultural communication skills with virtual humans: Feedback and fidelity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(4), 1026–1035. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031506
Example: Willis, L. (Ed.). (2013). Electronic devices in schools. Greenhaven Press.
Example: Educational psychology. (2020). In Encyclopædia Britannica. https://academic.eb.com/levels/collegiate/article/educational-psychology/32021
Author Last Name, Author Initial(s). (Year in parentheses). Title. Journal Title Italicized, Volume Italicized(Issue in parentheses), page range. DOI, permalink, or URL
Vrchota, D. (2011). Communication in the disciplines: Interpersonal communication in dietetics. Communication Education, 60(2), 210–230. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634523.2010.523475
Published Dissertation or Theses
Author Last Name, Author Initial(s). (Year in parentheses). Title of dissertation or thesis italicized [Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree in brackets]. Database or Archive Name. URL.
Blinne, K. C. (2014). Communication as yoga [Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. https://search.proquest.com/docview/1530298507
Author Last Name, Author Initial(s). (Year in parentheses). Title italicized. Publisher Name.
Egolf, D. (2012). Human communication and the brain: Building the foundation for the field of neurocommunication. Lexington Books.
Encyclopedia or Dictionary Entry with an individual author and an editor:
Author Last Name, Author Initial(s). (Year in parentheses). Title of entry. In Editor Initial(s) Last Name (ed.), Title of encyclopedia italicized (edition, page numbers in parentheses). Publisher Name. URL, permalilnk, or DOI
Mitcho, S. R. (2017). Feminist pedagogy. In M. Peters (ed.), Encyclopedia of educational philosophy and theory. Springer Science+Business Media. https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/sprepat/feminist_pedagogy/0
Encyclopedia or Dictionary Entry with no author and no editor:
Title of entry. (Year in parentheses). Title of encyclopedia italicized (edition, page numbers in parentheses). Publisher Name. URL, permalilnk, or DOI
Education. (2003). In The MacMillan encyclopedia (2nd ed.). Market House Books Ltd. https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/move/education/0
Author Last Name, Initial(s) or Corporate Author. (Date published or updated in parentheses). Title of webpage italicized. Site Name. URL
Silver, F. (2018, July 01). Why is it important for teachers to have good communication skills? Chron. http://work.chron.com/important-teachers-good-communication-skills-10512.html
Use the Author-Date Citation System to cite your references in the text of your paper
(Last Name, Year)
Example: (Vrchota, 2011)
Narrative Citations: If you refer to the author in your written text, use only the year in parentheses after the author's name.
Example: Vrchota (2011) interviewed seven registered dietitians.
Specific Quotes: Direct quoting is rare in APA, and should be used sparingly.
When you do directly quote a resource, include information about the specific part of your citation, such as page, paragraph, or chapter.
Example: "Relationships are built through the negotiated progression of increased and reciprocated disclosures by the participants" (Vrchota, 2011, p. 221).