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IDS 801: Introduction to Graduate Liberal Studies (Turner)

This guide is for students enrolled in IDS801: Introduction to Graduate Liberal Studies taught by Elizabeth Turner

This course uses the Publication Manual American Psychological Association: 7th edition, more commonly called "APA style" or "APA 7." This citation style is most commonly used in the social sciences of psychology, sociology, healthcare, and other related fields. Some people find it helpful to purchase a copy of the manual if they are going to be working extensively in a field that requires APA. For most people, they can get by using the various free online resources. It is not necessary to purchase a copy of the manual to be successful in this course. Most questions can be answered by using the APA Style Blog or the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) APA Style (7th edition) guide.

Basic Example


Journal Articles

Turner, M.E. (2020). Title of article. Title of Publication, 1(1), 1-10.


Turner, M.E. (2020). Title of book. Publisher Name.


Turner, M.E. (2020, July). Title of article. Title of newspaper.


Turner, M.E. (2020, July). Title of article. Title of magazine, 1(1), 1-10.

Web page or other piece of online content

Turner, M.E. (2020, July 25). Title of page. Site name.

What is a DOI?

DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier. It is a permanent identifier assigned to many pieces of online scholarly content. The DOI consists of a series of letters and numbers that is usually looks something like this: 10.1109/5.771073. Most DOIs are presented as clickable links that resolve through the DOI system. ( DOIs included in APA style citations should be presented in this format. For more information on how DOIs work, or to find an article using a DOI that is not in link format, visit

Do I need a URL?

If the journal article has a DOI, give the DOI as a link. If there is no DOI, do not include the URL.

If you are citing a newspaper or magazine article, give the permanent URL to the article you are citing. 

If you are citing a web page or other piece of online content, give the permanent URL to the page.

If you are citing an e-book that has a physical counterpart, treat it the same as the print edition and do not include a URL.

What about works with multiple authors?

APA 7 lists up to 20 author names in a reference list citation. 

How do I format my reference list?

You can find information on the general format for APA here: APA General Format - Purdue Owl

You can find information on the general format for reference lists here: Reference List, Basic Rules - Purdue Owl