An annotation is a brief description of a resource used to support your research.
A good annotation has four pillars:
Citations provide information on where to find the information again. You can find help for citations on the APA 7 page.
Analyses provide information on what the source is about. You can find help for analyses on the Writing Help page.
Assessments provide information on why this information is good information.
Reflections provide information on how you will use the information to support your research.
A good analysis 1) identifies the main arguments the author is making and 2) identifies the types of evidence used to support those arguments. Consider things like:
Here is an example of a good analysis:
In this article, the authors claim that structural change is needed in order to support working parents. They conducted interviews with more than 1,000 persons with children working in the industry and discovered that workers cited childcare conflicts are their greatest barrier to advancement.
This analysis identifies the major claims (that structural change is needed and that childcare conflicts are a barrier to advancement) and then identifies the type of evidence used to support those claims (interviews with more than 1,000 working parents).
A good assessment provides details on the validity of the information. Consider things like:
Here is an example of a good assessment:
Jane Smith, a professor of microbiology who has authored more than twenty papers on the topic, published this article in the peer-reviewed publication Science last year. The longitudinal study she used took care to use good methodology, however, the conclusions are specific to a limited situation and cannot be applied across the board.
This assessment names the author, provides information on her credentials (she is a professor and has authored many papers on the topic), gives information on the credibility of the source (peer-reviewed journal which is named) and indicates that it is a recent piece. It further states the quality of the data used as well as the limitations.
A good reflection provides details on how this particular source supports your research. It generally has two parts. The first part identifies which information will be the most useful and the second part identifies a specific research use for the material.
Some examples of research uses include:
Here is an example of a good reflection:
This article provides extensive information on reduced mammal populations in areas that experience drought at an increasing frequency. This supports the argument that climate change has an effect on prairie dog population.
This reflection identifies a specific piece of information (reduced mammal populations in drought-affected areas) and connects it to a specific research use (supporting the argument regarding prairie dog populations.)
A correctly formatted annotation contains all four elements, is a single cohesive paragraph without headings, and has a hanging indent.
Newman, P.A., Fantus, S., Woodford, M.R., Rwigema, M. (2017). “Pray That God Will Change You”: The Religious Social Ecology
of Bias-Based Bullying Targeting Sexual and Gender Minority Youth—A Qualitative Study of Service Providers and
Educators. Journal of Adolescent Research, 33(5), 523-548. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558417712013
This study, which concludes that religion plays a role in homophobia, documents bullying trends towards LGBTQ+ teens in
Canada through interviews with teachers and therapists. The authors are experts in the fields of sociology and gender studies.
This peer-reviewed article presented the results of the well-designed, though small, study which collected data from a diverse
population of service providers and used accepted methods to ensure the quality of the data. The Journal of Adolescent
Research is well-respected within the field. The information in this study which connects religious faith to homophobic
bullying supports the argument that LGBTQ+ teens of faith may suffer mental health consequences if they choose to stay
in the church.