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ESL 082: Upper-intermediate Writing Skills (Koenke): How to Cite and Avoid Plagiarism

MLA Citation Resources

Self Quiz: Is it plagiarism if ...

Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

Step 1: Identify which words and/or ideas you borrowed

Do this by using a quotation, paraphrase or summary of the original work to incorporate it with an in-text citation

Step 2: Acknowledge where it came from

Your in-text citation helps acknowledge and identify where it came from.

Ex: According to Kearney, "even well-prepared students are often not clear about when and how to use summary, quotation, and paraphrase" (1)Kearney is supporting the argument that these concepts can be difficult to teach and learn but practice and awareness can reduce the tendency for students to plagiarize someone else's work. 

Step 3: Provide detailed information about where it came from

The original work should also have a full citation in a Reference List or Works Cited page.

Ex: Kearney, Virginia. How to teach paraphrasing, quotation and summary. Owlcation, 26 March 2019, https://owlcation.com/academia/Teaching-Quotation-Paraphrase-and-Summary. Accessed 1 April 2020.

 

A quotation is:

  • a way of incorporating another author's ideas using the exact words from the original source
  • included in your own sentence (see suggested sentence structures)
  • used to explain, illustrate, support, or give an example

Use a quotation INFREQUENTLY, in cases when:

  • you need to preserve vivid or technical language
  • you want to comment on a quotation
  • comparing or contrasting your point of view and the quotation
  • a paraphrase might alter the meaning

Sentence Structure Formulas for Quotations:

  • Author states, "insert quote here" (in-text citation). In other words, author believes explain the quote in your own words.
  • According to author, "insert quote here" (in-text citation). Author is supporting the argument that explain the quote's argument in your own words. 
  • In the book, title of book, author maintains that "insert quote here(in-text citation). In making this comment, author urges us to explain the quote in your own words.

Example:

According to Kearney, "even well-prepared students are often not clear about when and how to use summary, quotation, and paraphrase" (1). Kearney is supporting the argument that these concepts can be difficult to teach and learn but practice and awareness can reduce the tendency for students to plagiarize someone else's work

Sources: 

Kearney, Virginia. How to teach paraphrasing, quotation and summary. Owlcation, 26 March 2019, https://owlcation.com/academia/Teaching-Quotation-Paraphrase-and-Summary. Accessed 1 April 2020.

Graff, Gerald, and Birkenstein, Cathy. They Say, I Say: The Moves that Matter in Academic Writing. 4th ed., W.W. Norton & Company, 2018.

A paraphrase is:

  • an easier way to incorporate another author's specific points into your paper 
  • an accurate and comprehensive account of the author's ideas
  • written in your own words and uses a different sentence structure than the original work (see suggested sentence structures)

Use a paraphrase VERY FREQUENTLY, in cases when:

  • you need to describe the author's evidence and engage with his/her findings
  • referring to a short passage
  • the source is not authoritative or interesting enough to quote

Sentence Structure Formulas for Paraphrase:

  • On the one hand, author #1 argues insert paraphrase here (in-text citation). On the other hand, author #2  believes insert paraphrase here (in-text citation).
  • Author suggested that insert paraphrase here (in-text citation). 
  • According to researchers, insert paraphrase here (in-text citation).

Example:

Kearney suggested that writing notes after reading a passage can help students with paraphrasing and make it easier to paraphrase in many of the instances in which students instinctively want to quote (2). 

Source: 

Kearney, Virginia. How to teach paraphrasing, quotation and summary. Owlcation, 26 March 2019, https://owlcation.com/academia/Teaching-Quotation-Paraphrase-and-Summary. Accessed 1 April 2020.

Graff, Gerald, and Birkenstein, Cathy. They Say, I Say: The Moves that Matter in Academic Writing. 4th ed., W.W. Norton & Company, 2018.

A summary is:

  • a way of incorporating an author's main idea by using your own words
  • summarizes the whole source, not just a section or key point
  • much shorter than the original piece

Use a summary FREQUENTLY, in cases when:

  • you need to describe the main idea of a book, article or passage
  • referring to an author's major argument
  • describing a theory you plan to apply to your work

Sentence Structure Formulas for Summary:

  • The purpose of author's article is to argue insert summary here (in-text citation)
  • Author's thesis boils down to insert summary here (in-text citation)
  • Numerous researchers have found insert summary here (in-text citation).
  • In summary, author argueinsert summary here (in-text citation).

Example:

In summary, Kearney argues that students who understand how to quote, paraphrase, and summarize will write stronger papers and have less of a tendency to plagiarize (1).

Source: 

Kearney, Virginia. How to teach paraphrasing, quotation and summary. Owlcation, 26 March 2019, https://owlcation.com/academia/Teaching-Quotation-Paraphrase-and-Summary. Accessed 1 April 2020.

Graff, Gerald, and Birkenstein, Cathy. They Say, I Say: The Moves that Matter in Academic Writing. 4th ed., W.W. Norton & Company, 2018.

Avoiding Plagiarism

Plagiarism basics

"All of the following are considered plagiarism:

  • turning in someone else's work as your own
  • copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit
  • failing to put a quotation in quotation marks
  • giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation
  • changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit
  • copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not (see our section on "fair use" rules)

Most cases of plagiarism can be avoided, however, by citing sources. Simply acknowledging that certain material has been borrowed, and providing your audience with the information necessary to find that source, is usually enough to prevent plagiarism." 

Source:  What is plagiarism? (n.d.) Retrieved from <http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism-101/what-is-plagiarism>

Review the FHSU policy on Academic Honesty.

This lesson on citations can help you avoid plagiarism. 

NLA Citations Lesson

Citations Tutorial Link

Citations are more than just a formality that protects against plagiarism. They allow individuals to participate in a scholarly conversation that is taking place among researchers in a specific field. In this lesson, students will explore types of citations and how citations can be used in academic writing.